Since the stage, stage lighting has become part of the stage. Stage lighting, highlighting the four elements of visual, realistic, aesthetic and performance. Experienced many years of evolution. Gradually developed into today's more sophisticated and advanced lighting systems. The first boom of the play occurred in ancient Greece more than 2,000 years ago. At the time, the theater was open air or semi-open air. The illumination of the stage depends on the immense "light" in the sky - the sun, so it can only be performed during the day. The need for rest and entertainment at night, the openness of the performance of the weather, and the development of drama have made the stage lighting a problem that people must solve.
Whether or not the lighting design is successful is based on the proper handling of stage lighting. The stage lighting not only lightens the actor, allows the audience to see the facial expressions, expressions and movements, but more importantly, fully utilizes the lighting technology and mobilizes the lighting operation to strengthen the artistic effects and make the audience feel immersive.
Stage lighting is mainly produced by the combination of computer lights and other lighting fixtures. It is through different modeling scenes, different color changes, different perspectives, horizontal and vertical light angle changes and speed, strobe speed, aperture size changes , Focal length changes and other comprehensive performance. Well, you must master these basic knowledge before you understand the stage lighting technology:
First, visible light
Light is radiant energy that is transmitted as electricity in the form of electromagnetic waves. The wavelength range of electromagnetic radiation is very wide, and only this wavelength of radiation in the range of 380 to 760 nm can cause light vision, which is called visible light. Wavelengths shorter than 380 nm are ultraviolet rays, x-rays, and gamma rays; rays longer than 760 nm are infrared rays, radio waves, and the like, and they do not produce optical vision to the human eye, that is, they cannot be seen. Therefore, light is an objectively existing energy, and it is closely related to people's subjective feelings.
Second, the classification of color
Colors can be divided into non-color and color categories. Achromatic refers to white, black, gray, gray, dark gray, and black. Pure white is an ideally complete light-reflecting object with a reflectance of 1; pure black is an ideal non-reflective object with a reflectance of zero. Therefore, the non-colored white and black series represent the change of the light reflectance of the object. We know that the light reflectivity is directly proportional to the brightness, and indoor white walls and ceilings can get higher brightness. Color refers to various colors other than white and black series. There are three characteristics of color: hue, lightness and saturation, called the three elements of color.
Hue is the color that appears. That is, names of various colors, such as red, green, blue, etc. It is related to the wavelength of light. Brightness (brightness) is the brightness of the color. The brightness of different hue is different, even if the same hue is affected by the nature of the surface of the object and the light intensity is different, there will be light and dark, dark and light differences. If it is also yellow, it may have light yellow, medium yellow, dark yellow, etc.
Saturation (saturation) represents the depth (shade) of a color, and is also the degree of color purity and vividness. The higher the saturation, the deeper (dense) the color appears, and the various monochromatic lights in the visible light are the most saturated colors. The more white light incorporated in the spectrum, the less saturated. For example, red light has higher saturation than pink light because white light is incorporated in the pink light. In general, in the same hue, when the lightness changes, the saturation also changes, but the increase or decrease in lightness decreases the saturation, and only when the lightness is moderate is the saturation (purity) maximum. However, people always feel that bright colors always look brighter.
Three, three primary colors and color matching methods
Red, green, and blue are called primary colors. These three colors are mixed in different proportions to produce a variety of colors. There are two basic methods of color mixing: additive mixing and subtractive mixing.
The so-called additive color mixing is when different colors of light are mixed, and they add together their respective portions of the spectrum, thereby creating a new method of mixing colors. Shows the color-to-color mixing of the color relationship. The red, green, and blue primary colors can be mixed in equal amounts:
Red light + green light = yellow light green light + blue light = blue light
Green + Red = Magenta Red + Green + Blue = White
If unequal amounts of light of the three primary colors are mixed, various intermediate colors can be obtained, for example:
More red light + less green light = orange light
More red light + less blue light = pink light
Subtractive blending is the method by which, when blending different colors, they each selectively absorb the corresponding portion of the incident light that they occupy in the spectrum to produce a synthetic color effect. If any two shades of light add together to produce white light, the two shades of light are called complementary light (complementary colors). If yellow and blue complement each other, green and red complement each other, and magenta and green complement each other. Therefore, yellow, cyan, and magenta are called minus blue, minus red, and minus green, respectively. That is to say, the three complementary colors are formed by subtracting a corresponding primary color from white light. Therefore, yellow, cyan, and magenta can be referred to as subtractive primary colors.
When the yellow, magenta, and blue subtractive primary colors overlap, black will be produced. In the subtractive color process, the density changes of the three subtractive primary colors control the absorption ratios of red, green, and blue, respectively, so that various mixed colors are obtained, and the same effect as the additive color mixing can be achieved.
Fourth, color and vision
Color can give people a sense of warmth, a sense of distance, a sense of size and a sense of severity, and often people associate, and thus form a different psychological effect, these are people's long-term visual habits.
Color can usually be divided into cool, warm, and neutral colors (middle colors). The coldness and warmth of color are divided according to the visual response and psychological association caused by various colors. Red reminds people of the heat of fire and creates a sense of warmth called warm colors. Blue is reminiscent of cold water, giving people a sense of chill, so it is called cold. Purple, green is not cold nor warm neutral color. Different colors can affect the size of the object's appearance. If you put together objects of different colors and the same size, a light-white object will appear large in visual perception. Dark black objects are small. In general, white objects appear to be the largest, black objects appear to be the smallest, yellow objects are larger, followed by green, red, and blue.
People's visual habits of color also produce a sense of distance. Different color objects give people different visual perceptions at the same distance. The warm color gives people the feeling of moving forward, and the cool color appears to be farther away. And the sense of distance given by color is also affected by the background tones. For example, when white is the background, blue looks closer; when black is the background, red looks the closest, followed by orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple. Using this feature can help us create a illusion of three-dimensional, distance sense.
The sense of color is also a long-term visual habit. It is generally believed that white is the lightest and black is the heaviest. Among the three primary colors of light, the green is the lightest, the blue is the heaviest, and the red is centered. There are two primary colors of light that are mixed in equal amounts, lighter and lighter, and heavier. The weight sense of color is not only expressed by brightness and purity, but also affected by the size of the area occupied by the color in the picture. Larger areas are heavier and attract people's attention than smaller areas.